The Contradictions & Impossibilities Of The “Holocaust by Bullets” Allegation & Why The Story Is Needed

In Tarnopol 5,000 Ukrainians kidnapped, 2,000 murdered. As counter measures arrest operation initiated against Jewish intellectuals, who shared responsibility for the murder and besides were informers for the NKVD. Number estimated at about 1,000. On July 5, approximately 70 Jews rounded up by Ukrainians and shot. Another 20 Jews killed on the road by military and Ukrainians, as response to the murder of three soldiers who were found chained in jail, with tongues cut out and eyes gouged out.

In the eyes of the SS and the civilian population of the Soviet Union, many Soviet Jews were regarded as being responsible for or accomplices to the Communist acts of violence.

The “Holocaust by Bullets” is becoming an increasingly popular theme among defenders of the Holocaust story. The allegation is that the Einsatzgruppen with support of the German army attempted to murder every Jew in the Soviet Union. This article will discuss the absurdity of this allegation.

The Traditional Analysis

      Jewish Princeton University historian Arno Mayer summarizes the mass shootings carried out by the Einsatzgruppen in the Soviet Union:

Even so, and notwithstanding the unparalleled magnitude of the Jewish suffering, the extermination of eastern Jewry never became the chief objective of Barbarossa. The fight for Lebensraum and against bolshevism was neither a pretext nor an expedient for the killing of Jews. Nor was it a mere smoke screen to disguise the Jewish massacres as reprisals against partisans. The assault on the Jews was unquestionably intertwined with the assault on bolshevism from the very outset. But this is not to say that it was the dominant strand in the hybrid ‘Judeobolshevism’ that Barbarossa targeted for destruction. In fact, the war against the Jews was a graft onto or a parasite upon the eastern campaign, which always remained its host, even or especially once it became mired deep in Russia.

When they set forth on their mission, Einsatzgruppen and the RSHA were not given the extermination of Jews as their principal, let alone their only, assignment.[1]

In Mayer’s analysis, the massacres of the eastern Jews were not part of a comprehensive plan of extermination. Rather, the killing of Jews in the Soviet Union occurred as the result of the inexorable radicalization of the war in the east, and because many Soviet Jews were classified by the SS as carriers of Bolshevism.[2]

In the eyes of the SS and the civilian population of the Soviet Union, many Soviet Jews were regarded as being responsible for or accomplices to the Communist acts of violence. For example, the massacres of Jews committed by Ukrainians and SS men in July 1941 in Lemberg and other Galician towns were primarily retaliations for the mass murders of Ukrainians committed by the Soviets between June 22 and July 2, 1941. The reports of the Einsatzgruppen furnish evidence of this:

In Tarnopol 5,000 Ukrainians kidnapped, 2,000 murdered. As counter measures arrest operation initiated against Jewish intellectuals, who shared responsibility for the murder and besides were informers for the NKVD. Number estimated at about 1,000. On July 5, approximately 70 Jews rounded up by Ukrainians and shot. Another 20 Jews killed on the road by military and Ukrainians, as response to the murder of three soldiers who were found chained in jail, with tongues cut out and eyes gouged out.[3]

Other Jews were shot in retaliatory measures after the discovery of Soviet torture chambers. For example, after the discovery of a torture chamber in the Tarnopol courthouse, the Germans reacted as follows: “The troops marching through who had the opportunity to see these atrocities, above all the bodies of the murdered German soldiers, killed all of the approximately 600 Jews and set their houses on fire.”[4]

churchill jew article
The dominant and active role of Jews in the Bolshevik Revolution & the Soviet Union was well known. Even Winston Churchill highlighted the predominant Jewish role in the world-wide communist movement in the following 1920 article.

Modern Historiography

Israeli Holocaust historian Yitzak Arad and other historians are now promoting the idea that the Einsatzgruppen with support of the German army murdered almost every Jew in the Soviet Union.[5] In his book The Holocaust in the Soviet Union, Arad discusses the difficulty of obtaining exact figures of Jews who died in the Soviet Union during World War II:

The absence of accurate Soviet statistics on the number of evacuated Jews into the Soviet rear areas and German documentation on the number of Jews remaining in the occupied Soviet territories makes it difficult to sum up the number of Jews who perished in these territories. The Soviet administration did not conduct any kind of census of the inhabitants, including Jews, who survived the German occupation. German statistics are incomplete on the number of Jews murdered during the years of occupation. The Einsatzgruppen reports and other German documents give the numbers of Jews murdered by them in specific locations, but they don’t include all of the murder sites, and there is doubt as to the accuracy of these statistics. Reports on the many massacres conducted by the Orpo and local police forces are only partial.[6]

Despite this lack of documentation, Arad produces estimates of Jewish deaths in the German-occupied Soviet Union during World War II that show only slight variations. Arad estimates that there were 2,612,000-2,743,500 Jews in the German-occupied Soviet Republics. Of this number, 103,000-119,000 Jews are estimated to have survived, while 2,509,000-2,624,500 Jews are estimated to have died.[7] Using the mid-range of these estimates, this equals a Jewish death rate of 95.85%, with a survival rate of only 4.15%.

Arad estimates that there were 2,105,000-2,225,000 Jews in the German-occupied Soviet Republics of Belorussia, Ukraine and Russia. Of this total, 42,000-55,000 Jews are estimated to have survived, while 2,063,000-2,170,000 Jews are estimated to have died. Using the mid-range of these estimates, Arad thus estimates that only 48,500 Jews survived out of 2,165,000 total Jews in Belorussia, Ukraine and Russia.[8] This equals a Jewish death rate of 97.76% in these three Soviet republics, with a survival rate of only 2.24%.

Arad provides no documentation for his estimated Jewish death totals in the Soviet Union. Arad’s assumed death total of Jews in the Soviet Union is absurd. The German army and the Einsatzgruppen were engaged in a monumental struggle against the Soviet army. The Germans could not possibly have killed such a high percentage of Jews based solely on verbal orders from Heinrich Himmler[9] while engaging in battles of epic proportions with the Soviets.

Yitzak Arad has given out false historical information in the past to support the official Holocaust story. Regarded by many as the leading Treblinka expert, Arad distorted a report dated November 15, 1942 by saying the report referred to gas chambers instead of steam chambers as the murder weapon at Treblinka.[10] Arad had to make this change because the official historiography now states that steam chambers were never used to kill Jews at Treblinka.[11]

Were the 62,000,000 slaughtered exclusively Christian Europeans?

Aktion 1005  

       Since the bodies of the alleged 2.5 million murdered Soviet Jews have not been found, the official Holocaust historiography claims that they were cremated in what is called Aktion 1005. An article in the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust defines this operation:

“Operation 1005, code name for a large-scale activity that aimed to obliterate the traces of the murder of millions of human beings by the Nazis in occupied Europe.”[12]

It is unrealistic to assume that Aktion 1005 succeeded and the Germans exhumed and burned over 2.5 million bodies. This would mean that within a period of 13 months the Germans had to have emptied thousands of graves in a territory of more than 1.2 million square kilometers–all without leaving behind any material or documentary traces. The mass exhumation of such a large number of bodies in such a short period of time is quite impossible.[13]

Furthermore, we know that no Soviet planes discovered and photographed the burning bodies, because otherwise the Soviets would have exploited the photographs for propaganda purposes. The thousands of pyres burning through the night would have been photographed by the Soviets if such mass exhumations had taken place.[14]

Yitzak Arad attempts to explain away these problems by stating that Aktion 1005 was a failure:

Aktion 1005 was a highly classified operation. Orders and reports were given and received verbally, and no German documents were saved to provide evidence. The SS, which was responsible for the operation, did everything in its power to prevent a leak of information on the site…

There is no way of knowing how many corpses were cremated in the course of the operation—hundreds of thousands, certainly, possibly even millions. But millions of corpses remained in the pits in which they had been buried. This tangible evidence—the corpses of millions of Jews and non-Jews, murdered by Nazi Germany and its collaborators in the occupied Soviet territories—remained for posterity. In its main objective—destroying the evidence of mass murder—Aktion 1005 failed.[15]

The problem with Arad’s explanation is that neither the Soviets nor anyone else have found the mass graves in which large numbers of Jews were supposedly buried in the Soviet Union. Germar Rudolf writes:

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, numerous mass graves, containing altogether hundreds of thousands of bodies of victims of the Soviets, were discovered, excavated, and investigated. Not only was the number of victims determined, but in many cases the specific cause of death as well. In the same regions where many of these mass graves were found, one million Jews are said to have been shot by the Einsatzgruppen. Yet no such grave has ever been reported found, let alone dug and investigated, in the more than half a century during which these areas have been controlled by the USSR and its successor states.[16]

Thus, the undocumented and imaginary Aktion 1005 provides no evidence of a German program of genocide against Soviet Jews.

Arad’s mass graves are not present in this dramatic Wikipedia map of the Holocaust in Russia. By I, Dennis Nilsson, CC BY 3.0

       The Einsatzgruppen trials that took place in Nuremberg from September 1947 to April 1948 form the basis for the allegations that the Einsatzgruppen and other German forces murdered millions of Jews and other people in the “Holocaust by Bullets”. The defendants in these trials were 24 commanding and senior officers of the Einsatzgruppen.[17]   

      Benjamin Ferencz, the chief prosecutor at the Einsatzgruppen trials, has admitted to using death threats to obtain evidence. Ferencz said in an interview:

You know how I got witness statements? I’d go into a village where, say, an American pilot had parachuted and been beaten to death and line everyone up against the wall. Then I’d say, “Anyone who lies will be shot on the spot.” It never occurred to me that statements taken under duress would be invalid.[18]

Ferencz, who enjoys an international reputation as a world peace advocate, further related a story concerning the interrogation of an SS colonel. Ferencz explained that he took out his pistol in order to intimidate him:

What do you do when he thinks he’s still in charge? I’ve got to show him that I’m in charge. All I’ve got to do is squeeze the trigger and mark it as auf der Flucht erschossen [shot while trying to escape]…I said “you are in a filthy uniform sir, take it off!” I stripped him naked and threw his clothes out the window. He stood there naked for half an hour, covering his balls with his hands, not looking nearly like the SS officer he was reported to be. Then I said “now listen, you and I are gonna have an understanding right now. I am a Jew—I would love to kill you and mark you down as auf der Flucht erschossen, but I’m gonna do what you would never do. You are gonna sit down and write out exactly what happened—when you entered the camp, who was there, how many died, why they died, everything else about it. Or, you don’t have to do that—you are under no obligation—you can write a note of five lines to your wife, and I will try to deliver it…” [Ferencz gets the desired statement and continues:] I then went to someone outside and said “Major, I got this affidavit, but I’m not gonna use it—it is a coerced confession. I want you to go in, be nice to him, and have him re-write it.” The second one seemed to be okay—I told him to keep the second one and destroy the first one. That was it.[19]

This and other admissions by Ferencz cast an immediate shadow over the entire proceedings. Is this the sort of legal person who can be relied upon to present fair and objective evidence at a major trial?[20]

Benjamin Ferencz took only two days to present the 253 captured documents in the Einsatzgruppen case. These documents were the primary evidence used to convict the defendants in these trials.[21]

The accuracy and authenticity of the Einsatzgruppen reports have been called into question by many researchers. The originals of the Einsatzgruppen reports have never been produced, and many of the copies that have been produced show clear signs of postwar additions. For example, Einsatzgruppen Report No. 111 contains garbled wording and a clear addition to the end of a paragraph (highlighted in bold below):

These were the motives for the executions carried out by the Kommandos: Political officials, looters and saboteurs, active Communists and political representatives, Jews who gained their release from prison camps by false statements, agents and informers of the NKVD, persons who, by false depositions and influencing witnesses, were instrumental in the deportation of ethnic Germans, Jewish sadism and revengefulness, undesirable elements, partisans, Politruks, dangers of plague and epidemics, members of Russian bands, armed insurgents—provisioning of Russian bands, rebels and agitators, drifting juveniles, Jews in general.[22]

Defenders of the Holocaust story often state that the Einsatzgruppen reports were captured by the U.S. Army when they took control of the Gestapo Headquarters. However, even Benjamin Ferencz has admitted that the copies of these reports originated with the copies held by the German Foreign Office in Berlin, which makes them Soviet-origin papers.[23]

Soviet-origin gas chambers.

The unreliability of the Einsatzgruppen reports was acknowledged in the trial of German Field Marshal Erich von Manstein in 1949. Von Manstein’s lawyer demonstrated that whole areas claimed by the reports to be “cleared of Jews” actually contained many flourishing Jewish communities that were untouched throughout the entire war. The trial court accepted the argument that the Einsatzgruppen reports were unreliable, and Von Manstein was acquitted in regard to the Einsatzgruppen activities in his command sector.[24]

Dr. Arthur Robert Butz explains why the Einsatzgruppen documents were forged:

It is not difficult to see why these documents exist; without them the authors of the lie would have no evidence for their claims except testimony. We have seen that with Auschwitz there was an abundance of material facts to work with and whose meanings could be distorted: shipments of Jews to Auschwitz, many of whom did not return to their original homes, large shipments of a source of hydrogen cyanide gas, elaborate cremation facilities, selections, the stench. The situation with the Einsatzgruppen was different; there was only one fact, the executions. Standing alone, this fact does not appear impressive as evidence, and this consideration was no doubt the motivation for manufacturing these documents on such a large scale.[25]

What else did the Allies falsely blame on Germans?


The Einsatzgruppen were assigned the tasks of killing Soviet Commissars and fighting partisan activity in the Soviet Union. Large numbers of Jews and non-Jews were killed in these operations.

Because German forces were always limited and always in demand at the front, German military authorities were all the more fearful of the disruptions partisans could bring. Consequently, the Einsatzgruppen and German army officers took severe measures against partisan activity in the Soviet Union. This resulted in the Einsatzgruppen and the German military engaging in mass killings of partisans, including the execution of many civilians. However, the Einsatzgruppen did not serve the additional purpose of committing genocide against Soviet Jewry.[26]

The increased death toll in the “Holocaust by Bullets” is being used today by Yitzk Arad and other historians to offset the diminishing estimated deaths in the German camps. This is the only way in which the alleged 6 million deaths in the so-called Holocaust can still be maintained.      

Peter Winter: A review of the available official “Holocaust” source books shows that
estimates of the number of people who died in Auschwitz has varied over the years between 9 million and 73,000.
The “Holocaust by Bullets” is becoming an increasingly popular theme among defenders of the Holocaust story.


[1] Mayer, Arno, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? The ‘Final Solution’ in History, New York: Pantheon Books, 1988, p. 270.

[2] Mattogno, Carlo and Graf, Jürgen, Treblinka: Transit Camp or Extermination Camp?, Washington, D.C.: The Barnes Review, 2010, p. 208.

[3] Ibid., p. 262.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Arad, Yitzhak, The Holocaust in the Soviet Union, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 125-133.

[6] Ibid., p. 517.

[7] Ibid., p. 525.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid., p. 131.

[10] Arad, Yitzhak, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press, 1987, pp. 354-355.

[11] Mattogno, Carlo and Graf, Jürgen, Treblinka: Transit Camp or Extermination Camp?, Washington, D.C.: The Barnes Review, 2010, p. 63.

[12] Gutman, Israel (ed), Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 4 vols., New York: Macmillan, 1990, article “Aktion 1005,” Vol. 1, p. 11.

[13] Mattogno, Carlo and Graf, Jürgen, Treblinka: Transit Camp or Extermination Camp?, Washington, D.C.: The Barnes Review, 2010, p. 226.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Arad, Yitzhak, The Holocaust in the Soviet Union, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, pp. 355-356.

[16] Rudolf, Germar, The Rudolf Report: Expert Report on Chemical and Technical Aspects of the “Gas Chambers” of Auschwitz, Washington, D.C.: The Barnes Review, 2011, p. 40.

[17] Winter, Peter, The Six Million: Fact or Fiction?, 4th edition, The Revisionist Press, 2015, p. 22.

[18] Brzezinski, Matthew, “Giving Hitler Hell”, The Washington Post Magazine, July 24, 2005, p. 26.

[19] Jardim, Tomaz, The Mauthausen Trial, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012, pp. 82-83.

[20] Winter, Peter, The Six Million: Fact or Fiction?, 4th edition, The Revisionist Press, 2015, p. 24.

[21] Maguire, Peter, Law and War: International Law and American History, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010, p. 138.

[22] Winter, Peter, The Six Million: Fact or Fiction?, 4th edition, The Revisionist Press, 2015, pp. 24-25.

[23] Ibid., p. 25.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Butz, Arthur R., The Hoax of the Twentieth Century: The Case Against the Presumed Extermination of European Jewry, ninth edition, Newport Beach, CA: Institute for Historical Review, 1993, p. 200.

[26] Ibid., pp. 197-204.

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12 Responses

  1. larryzb says:

    Yes, the emphasis is slowly shifting to the “killing ravines” of the East. This is necessary because more folks are seeing the death camps in Poland as being debunked.

    Fortunately, for those who have trouble coming to terms with being lied to, there is a holocaust deprogramming course online now. (It is the blog of the same name and is available online 24/7/365).

    One thing to note is the preponderance of Jews among the ranks of Communist commissars attached to the Red Army. This is yet another indication that the hated communism inflicted upon the people of Russia was a Jewish run program.

  2. Sonder says:

    I wonder when will this grand lie known as the holocaust break off? The lies like the use of bone milling machines, the soap, the lampshades, shrunken heads, giant pyres and cremating 4 people in 1 muffle? Not to mention, most of the Allied liberated Death camps became concentration camps. But the ones that the soviets “liberated” are still consider the former.

  3. WakeyWakey says:

    It is incredible that a world war in which several nations are involved is turned into a fiction of ‘a war against a tinyJewish minority fullstop’. This is narcissism in its extreme.

    The Jewish nature of the bolshevik revolution and Jewish bolshevik leadership against Christian Russia (funded by Jewish international bankers such as the Schiffs) is on the record and beyond argument.

    Robert Wilton was based in Moscow as a Journalist for the Times of
    London throughout the period of the Bolshevik revolution. In 1919, the
    Soviet Press provided a list of 556 of the top figures of the Soviet
    Government, identifying their ethnicity. Wilton obtained this list and
    included it as an “appendix’ in his book, “The Last Days of the
    Romanovs,” 1920.

    The list included 17 Russians, 2 Ukrainians, 11 Armenians, 35 Letts
    (Latvians), 15 Germans, 1 Hungarian, 10 Georgians, 3 Poles, 3 Finns, 1
    Czech, 1 Karaim (Jewish sect) and 457(!) Jews. This list is provided
    below. Jews, in fact, totally dominated the government of the Soviet

    Central Committee

    62 Members 42 Jews 20 Gentiles

    Name and Nationality:

    Sverdlov (president) Jew
    Avanessof (secretary) Armenian
    Bruno Lett(Latvian)
    Babtchinski Jew
    Bukharin Russian
    Gailiss Jew
    Ganzburg Jew
    Danichevski Jew
    Starck German
    Scheinmann Jew
    Erdling Jew
    Landauer Jew
    Linder Czech (Probably Jew)
    Dimanstein Jew
    Encukidze Georgian
    Ermann Jew
    Joffe Jew
    Karkline Jew
    Knigissen Jew
    Rosenfeldt (Kamenef) Jew
    Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Krylenko Russian
    KrassikofSachs Jew
    Kaprik Jew
    Kaoul Lett
    Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian (part Jew)
    Latisis Jew
    Lander Jew
    Lounstcharski Russian
    Peterson Lett
    Peters Lett
    Roudzoutas Jew
    Rosine Jew
    Smidovitch Jew
    Stoutchka Lett
    Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew
    Sosnovski Jew
    Skrytnik Jew
    Bronstein (Trotskyu) Jew
    Teodorovitch Jew
    Terian Armenian
    Ouritski Jew
    Telechkine Russian
    Feldmann Jew
    Froumkine Jew
    Souriupa Ukranian
    Tchavtchevadze Georgian
    Scheikmann Jew
    Rosental Jew
    Achkinazi Imeretian (Jew)
    Karakhane Karaim (Jew)
    Rose Jew
    Sobelson (Radek) Jew
    Schlichter Jew
    Schikolini Jew
    Chklianski Jew
    Levine (Prafdine) Jew

    Extraordinary Commission of Moscow:-

    36 Members 24 Jews 12 Gentiles

    Name and Nationality:-

    Dzerjinski (president) Pole (Jew)
    Peters (vice-president) Lett
    Chklovski Jew
    Kheifiss Jew
    Zeistine Jew
    Razmirovitch Jew
    Kronberg Jew
    Khaikina Jewess
    Karlson Lett
    Schaumann Jew
    Leontovitch Jew
    Jacob Goldine Jew
    Glaperstein Jew
    Kniggisen Jew
    Latzis Lett
    Schillenkuss Jew
    Janson Lett
    Rivkine Jew
    Antonof Russian
    Delafabre Jew
    Tsitkine Jew
    Roskirovitch Jew
    G. Sverdlof Jew
    Beisenski Jew
    Blioumkine Jew
    Alexandrevitch Russian
    I. Model Jew
    Routenberg Jew
    Pines Jew
    Sachs Jew
    Daybol Lett
    Saissoune Armenian
    Daylkenen Lett
    Liebert Jew
    Bogel German
    Zakiss Lett

    The Council of the Peoples Commissars:-

    22 Members 17 Jews 5 Gentiles

    Ministry, Name and Nationality:-

    President Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian (part Jew)
    Foreign Affairs Tchitcherine Russian
    Nationalities Djugashvili (Stalin) Georgian
    Agriculture Protian Armenian
    Economic Council Lourie (Larine) Jew
    Food Schlichter Jew
    Army & Navy Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew
    State Control Lander Jew
    State Lands Kauffman Jew
    Works V. Schmidt Jew
    Social Relief E. Lelina (Knigissen) Jewess
    Public Instructions Lounatcharsky Russian
    Religions Spitzberg Jew
    Interior Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Hygiene Anvelt Jew
    Finance Isidore Goukovski Jew
    Press Voldarski Jew
    Elections Ouritski Jew
    Justice I. Steinberg Jew
    Refugees Fenigstein Jew
    Refugees (assist.) Savitch Jew
    Refugees (assist.) Zaslovski Jew

    Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party:-

    12 Members: 10 Jews 2 Gentiles

    Name and Nationality:-

    Bronstein (Trotsky) Jew
    Apfelbaum (Zinovief) Jew
    Lourie (larine) Jew
    Ouritski Jew
    Voldarski Jew
    Rosenfeldt (Kamanef) Jew
    Smidovitch Jew
    Sverdlof (Yankel) Jew
    Nakhamkes (Steklof) Jew
    Ulyanov (Lenin) Russian
    (part Jew) Krylenko Russian
    Lounatcharski Russian

    Central Committees:-

    Mensheviks: 11 members, all Jews
    Communists of the People: 6 members, 5 Jews
    Socialist Rev. Party (Right Wing): 15 members, 13 Jews
    Socialist Rev. Party (Left Wing): 12 members, 10 Jews
    Committee of the Anarchists: 5 members, 4 Jews
    Polish Communist Party: 12 members, all Jews
    Ministry of the Commissariat: 22 Members 17 Jews 5 Gentiles

    Central Executive Committee:-

    61 Members 41 Jews 20 Gentiles

    (my source Benton Bradberry’s “The Myth of German Villainy” which was banned by amazon but available from The Barnes Review)

  4. John says:


    Great post! The only thing I would correct is that Benton Bradberry’s book “The Myth of German Villainy” can still be purchased on Amazon.

    • wearswar says:

      Editor: Several books seem to be banned and then without notice, reappear on Amazon. Andrew Carrington Hitchcock experienced this a few days ago. It’s a “mystery”.

  5. Reblogged this on THE FOURTH REICH CENTURY and commented:

  6. bifurcatio says:

    There is a new video series on Amazon Prime called ‘The Nazi Death Squad’ (Einsatzgruppen). I watched episode 1 and half of 2. To my awakened eyes it was clearly Jewish propaganda against the ‘Nazis’. The depressing part is that it had a higher than 4 star rating; my 1 star rating brought it down to just 4. All of the comments but my own were thankful for the great and accurate history lesson.

    What will it take?

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